- A plant’s ability to take in or uptake water or nutrients through their root system.
- Allowing a plant to adjust to a new condition, climate, or environment.
- A mixture or substance with a pH below 7.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
- The energy molecule of all cells; often referred to as the molecular unit of currency.
- Provides oxygen or air for the soil to allow proper root development and functioning, and a favorable environment for microbial life.
- A machine that hangs over a door and produces a downward burst of air each time the door is opened, lessening the chances of pests, disease, and dust from entering an indoor garden space.
- Air roots form when a plant's root system is slightly raised out of the soil; they help by strengthening the root system, strengthening the plant, and promoting excellent health.
- A mixture or substance with a pH above 7.
- Organic or mineral substances added to soil to change the composition, texture, or nutritional content.
- External environment of flowers.
- A common pest attracted to cannabis plants that are small in size, easily distinguishable by cornicles on their rear. They suck sap out of leaves, live in large colonies, and can produce live young.
- An invertebrate insect with a segmented body and jointed appendages. Beneficial in a cannabis garden, they shred organic material like leaves into smaller pieces that feed other microbial life.
(ATP) Adenosine Triphosphate
- see above.
- A plant whose flowering cycle is initiated by maturity instead of light exposure.
- An organism that can make its own food from inorganic substances, like carbon dioxide.
- Microscopic living organisms, commonly one-celled, that live in large colonies and can be beneficial or harmful.
- Insects used for organic pest management that do not harm a cannabis plant.
- A fungal disease that grows most commonly on flowers due to damp, humid conditions. Also commonly known as mold.
- A pod located on and making up a cannabis flower, consisting of a female ovule and two pistils. A seed pod.
- The percentage of sugars present in a plant's sap. The higher the brix level, the higher the quality of the flower. Higher brix means plants are healthier, have more aroma, flavor, medicinal value, and flowers have a longer shelf life.
- Tiny, oval-shaped pests that attack cannabis plants and can significantly lower plant health.
- See Botrytis Cinerea.
- The loss of color or plant cells due to too high a concentration of nutrients; from applying a foliar spray; or being too close to light/heat.
- A medicinal herb that produces terpenes, THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids that interact with the human body’s unique endocannabinoid system. There are many different varieties of this plant.
- Chemical compounds naturally found in the cannabis plant, secreted in the trichomes that grow on its flowers, and once consumed, interact with your body’s unique endocannabinoid system to achieve homeostasis, psychoactivity, or both.
- Various neutral compounds, including starches, sugars, and cellulose that are produced by plants through the process of photosynthesis and used for growth, or released through its roots into the soil to attract beneficial microbial life, thus improving plant health.
- An odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas used by plants to complete processes like photosynthesis. Helpful to plants, deadly in excess for humans; use with care.
- External fruit environment.
- A corky strip made of living cells that surround a plant’s root system and only allows recognized nutrients to enter into a plant’s vascular system. Entrance is made possible from the energy of ATP (see above).
- The larvae of a moth or butterfly; a long worm-like creature with legs and appendages. They hatch on and eat plant leaves and fibers; they can do a lot of damage in a short amount of time.
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
- The measure of the amount of nutrients that can be held by a soil mixture. Soil with a low cation exchange capacity cannot hold as many nutrients as soil with a higher CEC.
- Another cannabinoid found in high amounts in the cannabis plant, although non-psychoactive, and primarily known as an anti-inflammatory.
- The tiny structural unit that makes up a plant, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.
- An insoluble compound; that makes up most of a plant’s cell walls and fibers; stiffens a plant; a carbohydrate.
- A green pigment, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis; present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria.
- A halogen element commonly found in tap water. Also used as an aggressive cleaner, bleach and oxidizing agent.
- Contains chlorophyll; used in photosynthesis.
- A condition that appears in a sick cannabis plant, visible on its leaves. The leaf veins remain green while the surrounding tissue is yellow, or the veins yellow while the surrounding tissue remains green.
- The typical conditions a garden is exposed to.
- Plants that are grown alongside cannabis to discourage pest infestation or otherwise benefit your garden; plants that grow well with and improve the vitality of another plant.
- A cutting of a plant that produces the same characteristics as the plant it was cut from.
- A distinguishing characteristic of an aphid, appearing as two tiny tubes attached to their rear. They allow an aphid to excrete a sticky substance, called honeydew, coating plant surfaces and attracting ants.
- A plant species that is grown for the protection and enrichment of the soil.
- The total number of plants grown during one full cycle.
- The genetic twin of a Mother plant. See Clone.
- Storing perfectly dried, trimmed flowers in a sealed glass jar for 2 weeks.
- The loyalty and integrity a gardener devoted to their caretaker role brings to the equation. Required for the exemplary results you’re looking for.
- Lacking something.
- A machine that takes moisture out of the air and allows you to better influence the humidity levels in a room.
- The spreading of molecules, particles, or substances based on the natural movement of those particles.
- A plant sickness; a disorder of structure or function in a plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms, or that affects a specific location.
- The even filtration of liquid through soil.
- A micro-irrigation system that allows water to be given to a plant on demand; at certain intervals; or as pressure differences in the soil arise.
- A small area of soil that is dry while the surrounding area is wet.
- A community of living organisms interacting as a system in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment.
- Primary constituents of matter; a substance that cannot be chemically interconverted or broken down into simpler substances.
- Microbes inside a plant. Endophytes can enter a plant during its early development, through natural breaks in plant tissue, or through the root tips.
- The space inside and surrounding a plant's cells inhabited by endophytes.
- Cannabinoids and terpenes produce better results when paired together as opposed to using them on their own.
- When day and night are equal length; it happens twice a year in March and September.
- The large leaves of a cannabis plant that have distinguishing characteristics identifying it as an Indica or Sativa strain.
- To provide nutrition for a plant.
- The plant you want! A female first starts growing tiny bracts with hair-like projections - stigma - on their nodes, eventually producing flowers.
- The budding part of a cannabis plant, found at the top and along the branches of the female plant.
- The last stage of a cannabis plant’s life cycle; when it produces flowers, cannabinoids, and terpenes; usually lasting 8-16 weeks.
- A spore-producing, typically filamentous, eukaryotic organism that lacks chlorophyll; beneficial or harmful depending on the type.
- A tiny, delicate fly whose larvae feed mainly on fungi.
- A specific sequence of nucleotides that form chromosomes, inherited from a parent, which determine the characteristics of the offspring.
- The genetic features of a plant that determine how a plant will look, grow, and behave.
- To sprout, or begin to grow from a seed.
- An ingredient that has a consistency more like sand than flour. Bigger than a micronized ingredient.
- A structure with a roof and side protection, where temperature and humidity can be influenced, and where plants are grown. A place protected from the weather.
- Water transpiration is regulated with the help of guard cells, found on both sides of each stoma. As water is taken into guard cells, they become swollen and open up, releasing water in vapor form into the air. As it is released, the guard cells relax and shut, preventing more water from escaping. Guard cells are strongly influenced by temperature, light intensity, humidity levels, carbon dioxide, and wind/air movement.
- Like wheat or corn, cutting the plant down when ripe to enjoy the fruit of your labor.
- Occurring due to hot temperatures, usually 84F and above. Signs include stunted growth, burned leaf tips and edges, yellowing leaves, and leaves that curl up like a taco.
- A plant that shows both male and female characteristics, usually able to produce seeds due to both pollen and flowers being present.
High Pressure Sodium (HPS)
- A type of high-intensity light bulb used to grow cannabis indoors.
- A sticky substance made by certain pests like aphids and excreted onto plants.
- Temperatures that are above 84F.
- The amount of water molecules - water vapor - in the air. It is directly related to the temperature. Warmer air can hold more moisture while cooler air holds less.
- A phenotype that is a mixture of two varieties of cannabis plants; for example, a cross of an Indica and a Sativa.
- An instrument that measures humidity.
- Vegetative parts of filamentous soil fungi that branch out in thread-like forms, composing a beneficial/desirable network called mycelia.
- Immobile nutrients cannot be moved around in a plant, instead, helping where they are deposited. Immobile nutrient deficiencies are noticeable in newer leaves found at the top of a plant.
Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
- The type of microorganisms present in a particular area, heavily dependent on the soil, climate, plant life, and specific conditions of that area. Microorganisms vary from region to region.
- A large number of pests in a space that quickly cause damage or destruction of a plant.
- To introduce to an organism or substance.
- Unable to be dissolved in water.
- How bright or strong something is.
Korean Natural Farming (KNF)
- A gardening technique that collects indigenous microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) and uses natural ingredients to produce fertile soil, without the use of pesticides.
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)
- A type of bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of the fermentation of carbohydrates.
- A beneficial predator used as a natural way to remove aphids, whiteflies, mites, and other pests from a garden.
- A pest that lives on the leaves of a plant by sucking juices from it.
- A tiny flying insect with translucent wings that typically feed on aphids. A beneficial predator that helps naturally remove pests from a garden.
- An immature (baby) insect that typically differs in appearance from the adult. The stage between egg and pupa.
- When a mineral drains out of soil due to liquid application or exposure.
- The solar panels of a plant; they contain stomata and are mainly responsible for photosynthesis and transpiration.
- A characteristic that lets you know there is a problem with a plant; for example, if a plant is exposed to too much heat, light, or a particular nutrient.
- One of the divisions that make up a leaf.
- A pest that feeds on the inside of a leaf. The larvae of a moth, beetle, or small fly.
- A plant that has excessively long and straggly stalk and stems.
- The amount of time it takes for a plant to develop from seed up until harvest.
- The cycle of darkness and light that a plant is exposed to.
- Light deprivation: Controlling light conditions to encourage a plant to flower, most often on days with longer light cycles (summer).
- A soil that is made up of multiple components that harmoniously work together to create an environment that allows a plant's root system to establish strong architecture, encourage root hair development, and obtain the nutrients required for it to prosper.
- A beneficial predator reptile that eats moths and other small insects.
- Removing the bottom branches of a cannabis plant to obtain healthier plants, higher quality flowers, and a better harvest.
- Going above and beyond to ensure a plant has what it needs to be amazing.
Low Stress Training
- A supportive netting technique used to influence how a plant grows.
- A unit of measurement to determine the brightness of light.
- A nutrient needed in large amounts for plant development and health.
- A cannabis plant that produces pollen and lacks female characteristics.
- To remove something, be it a leaf or pest, by hand.
- A small, sap-sucking pest that is coated with a powdery white wax, usually found on the stem or branches of a plant.
- As used in this book, cannabis that is grown organically and produces adequate amounts of cannabinoids and terpenes.
Metal Halide (MH)
- A high intensity lamp that improves the color rendition and efficiency of light, used indoors to grow plants. They emit a bluish-white light and are typically used in the vegetative stage.
- A microorganism; bacteria, fungi.
- The climate of a particular area that’s different from a neighboring area.
- A fine consistency ingredient easier to mix in water and more readily available to a plant. More the consistency of powder than sand.
- A nutrient that a plant requires in small amounts in order to achieve proper health and development.
- The conversion of a nutrient from an organic form to an inorganic form, occurring when soil microorganisms decompose or break down organic matter. In soil, the decomposition of compounds which releases nutrients in a soluble form that can then be used by plants.
- Mobile nutrients are able to be moved to different parts of a plant as needed, sometimes being transported from older leaves to younger ones to resolve a deficiency. Mobile nutrient deficiencies are noticeable in older leaves found at the bottom of a plant.
- A tool used to measure how wet or dry the soil is.
- A plant that is vegged for a period of time so cuttings may be taken and grown, allowing multiple plants with the exact same genetic traits.
- A fungus that creates associations with root systems to establish a 2-way nutrient exchange between the fungi and the plant.
- The vegetative parts of filamentous fungi that branch out into fine white filaments called hyphae.
- The death of most of the cells in a leaf or plant part.
- A tiny, cylindrical worm free-living in soil or water. Depending on the type, they can be beneficial or harmful. The most abundant multicellular animal on the planet.
- A substance that provides nourishment and is required for plant growth, development, and reproduction.
- A young insect that doesn’t dramatically change as it grows.
- Relating to living matter. True organic cannabis is grown in soil with beneficial microbes, under the sun, without synthetic nutrients or pesticides, with natural pest management techniques.
- A process that allows the molecules of a mixture to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution to a higher concentrated solution, which then equalizes the concentrations on both sides of the membrane.
- When a plant has been given too much water. One of the biggest mistakes growers make. A moisture meter reading under 90.
Parts Per Million (PPM)
- An extremely precise measurement of how concentrated a mixture is.
- A beneficial predator that helps naturally control pests in a garden and is not harmful to humans. Adults typically lay eggs inside the body of its host, which then hatch into larvae and feed on the host.
- A table of 118 different chemical elements occurring in nature, each one distinguished by its atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom), and arranged in columns and rows that reflect electron configuration and recurring chemical properties.
- A technique that requires conscious planting to make sure there are always plants in vegetative and flowering stages to ensure a constant supply of medicine.
- A scale of 0-14 that tells how acidic or alkaline a substance is, with lower numbers reflecting acidity, higher numbers reflecting alkalinity, and 7 being neutral.
- Like siblings, cannabis plants that have the same Mother and Father but come from different seeds. Phenotypes can have similar characteristics, or can be different, depending on if they express more of the Mother's genes or the Father's.
- The process by which a plant uses water, carbon dioxide, and energy from light to make food for growth.
- The length of time a plant is exposed to light each day.
- Above-ground plant surface including leaves, stems, and flowers; the total habitat for microbes.
- A small beneficial predator used to naturally control pests like spider mites, aphids, thrips, and caterpillars.
- The part of a female cannabis plant that catches pollen to produce seeds, found on the flowers and appearing as hairs.
- A fine powdery grain produced by the male plant essential for seeds. If you are raising plants for flowers, you don’t want pollen around.
Powdery Mildew (PM)
- A white, powdery fungal disease that is composed of tiny spores that spread on the surface of a plant, lowering quality and health. It can be spread by the wind, pests, predators, animals, or humans.
- A sizable beneficial predator that helps to naturally control pests in a garden.
- A tiny beneficial predator mite that feeds on other mites.
- An action that prevents a plant from acquiring a disease or pest infestation.
- Nutrients required in large amounts; Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K).
- To duplicate a particular/special/favorite plant by taking a cutting from a Mother plant. Cloning.
- Single-celled microscopic animals; free-living or parasitic; that feed on organic matter or other microorganisms.
- To cut or remove certain parts of a plant to increase growth in specific areas.
- An insect in a non-feeding, immobile, transformative stage of development.
- The degree of excellence; how well something works or is grown. Simultaneously a subjective and objective standard.
Quick Release Ingredient
- An ingredient that is in a form that allows nutrients to be used almost immediately by a plant.
- The area in soil directly on or around a plant’s root system that influences growth, respiration, and nutrient exchange. The most complex ecosystem on the planet.
- When a plant’s root system is confined in a small space for too long; it can affect how it uptakes nutrients.
- A substance made and secreted by a plant’s root system to attract beneficial microbes to the rhizosphere; composed of sugars, amino acids, and vitamins.
- A condition that causes a plant’s roots to start decaying from exposure to too much water for too long.
- The part of a plant that constantly supplies the stems, leaves, and flowers with water and dissolved minerals; holds a plant upright; and typically located underground in the soil. The roots also release exudates to attract beneficial microbes to the plant for increased nutrient production and exchange.
- A tiny pest that removes the cell contents from parts of a plant, typically starting at the bottom and working to the top. Damaged area appears bronze colored and unhealthy.
- A scale-covered slow-moving pest that attaches to surfaces like stems and branches and sucks the juices out of plants.
- Acronym for “screen of green.” This is a technique that involves using a screen or trellis net to maximize sun exposure and yield; it also provides support for branches and flowers and spaces them out to allow better air flow, lessening the likelihood of developing disease or harboring pests.
- An embryonic plant contained in a shell that grows into a new plant.
- A plant in its early stage of development, a little after it has germinated or sprouted from a seed.
- Nutrients needed in moderate amounts for growth; Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and Sulfur (S).
Slow Release Ingredient
- An ingredient that takes awhile to break down or be available for a plant to uptake, usually in a granular form rather than micronized.
- Strongly bonded groups of soil particles. The space between aggregates provide areas for the exchange and retention of water and air.
Soil Food Web
- A community of living organisms and fungi that live in the soil. Smaller microorganisms feed the larger organisms, and each one has a specific job that benefits the whole community.
- The liquid in the soil that holds nutrients which a plant can utilize as it uptakes moisture through its roots.
- External environment of a germinated seed.
- A beneficial predator that helps naturally control pests in a garden.
- A tiny plant-eating mite that looks like a spider and is one of the most common pests in a cannabis garden.
- A tiny one-celled reproductive particle. Fungi, mold, and mildews are propagated/dispersed by spores. Can be carried by the wind, pests, predators, animals, or humans and create a new individual.
- A tiny plant-eating mite that looks like a spider and has two spots, one on each side of its body.
- The stage after germination. A tiny fragile new plant.
- A bamboo, fiberglass, wood, or metal post that is used to support a plant’s stem and branches and keep it upright.
- The main body of a plant that helps hold a plant’s branches and leaves, and provides channels that carry water and nutrients throughout a plant. The plant’s spine.
- A moth-like pest that bores into a branch or stem to lay its eggs, killing that section of the plant and any part above the point of entry.
- A fungal disease that appears as yellow circles that turn brown on the stem of a cannabis plant, reducing yield, and likely causing the death of a plant if allowed to progress.
- Tiny pore-like openings in the epidermis of a leaf that open and close to allow absorption and release of gas and water.
- A deliberately propagated type of cannabis plant unique by its genetic makeup, sequencing, and environmental factors. A cultivar.
- Anything that causes a plant to decline in health; for example, pest damage, unbalanced temperatures, unbalanced light exposure, etc..
- Produced by a plant and used as a food source for both a plant and the microbial life in the soil.
v - The small leaves on a cannabis flower that contain trichomes.
- Results from too intense a light, or being too close to a light. Causes discoloration and death of plant cells.
- If you are vegging a plant and need more light than what is available in a day, you can hang string lights or another weatherproof light fixture above your plants to provide longer light exposure.
- Where several components live in close proximity and mutually benefit each other.
- A non-organic ingredient.
T5 Fluorescent Light
- A light fixture that emits low heat and is commonly used indoors for seedlings and clones.
- The first root that sprouts from a seed, growing straight down with several subsidiary rootlets growing out from it.
- A combination of organic ingredients that is brewed and fed to a plant and soil.
- How hot or cold an area is. Temperature is influenced by sun/light intensity, wind, rain, elevation, and season.
- A flower that is close to death.
- The different aromas and flavors naturally produced and given off by cannabis plants; found in the trichomes on the flowers. They also help cannabinoids like THC and CBD pass through the bloodstream, and help increase or decrease chemicals in the human body that may need regulating.
- the main cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant, producing psychoactive effects, and the relief of a multitude of issues and symptoms.
- A small, winged pest insect that moves quickly and often appears in large numbers. They are easy to spot and usually come in different colors, including white, gray, brown, and black. They suck juices from the plant.
- Removing the top of a plant to increase the number of tops and encourage a bushier plant. Also, cutting off the top of a plant to propagate its genetic twin.
- A technique that involves putting dry micronized or granular ingredients directly on top of the soil at the base of the plant. As the plant is watered, nutrients are broken down and released over time, becoming available for a plant to uptake.
- Training a cannabis plant means helping support its branches and flowers by giving it something to lean against, and encouraging it to grow in the desired direction. It also means strategic cutting for a desired result.
- The process that moves water from a plant's roots up through the stems and branches to the leaves and then into the air. It allows a plant to cool itself down, and also influences nutrient uptake and gas exchange capabilities.
- The movement of liquid and nutrients through and out of a plant.
- Moving a plant from a smaller container to a larger container in order to allow more space for the root system. Timing is everything when it comes to doing this correctly.
- Minerals needed in small amounts but absolutely critical for the development of a plant. Includes: Iron, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Boron, Chlorine, Silica, and Molybdenum. Also known as micronutrients.
- A small, glandular outgrowth that protrudes from the epidermis of a leaf or flower and contains cannabinoids and terpenes.
- The act of removing leaves with scissors.
- A technique called low stress training (LST) that involves supporting plants with a net. Benefits include better support, less work throughout flowering, and a more uniform canopy.
- A plant or soil that has not been given enough liquid.
- When a plant absorbs nutrients and water for growth and maintenance.
Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD)
- A measure of how much moisture is in a space in relation to how much moisture can be in the space. It is affected by both temperature and humidity.
- Cultivar. See strain.
- Helps remove air from a room, allowing fresh air to enter, and provides consistent air circulation.
- The overall feel of a place, person, or plant.
- The beginning stage of a plant’s life emphasizing the growth of leaves and branches, but lacking flowers.
- A type of fungal disease caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae. It is a disease of the xylem (water-conducting tissues) of a plant.
- Able to be dissolved in water.
- A tiny white insect that resembles a moth and has two antennae on its head. It attacks a plant by sucking its juices and diminishes its health over time.
- When a leaf or plant becomes limp; due to being root bound, a lack of water, or too much heat.
- The amount of flowers by weight from a plant or crop.